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Bahasa Inggris dalam penerbangan 2: ICAO Language Proficiency Level Test
15 May 2017
Administrator

 

 

ICAO Language Proficiency Level

Sejak tahun 2003 ICAO memberlakukan language proficiency level (tingkat kemahiran berbahasa) untuk bahasa yang digunakan dalam komunikasi penerbangan. Bahasa ini bisa merupakan salah satu bahasa yang dikenal di ICAO misalnya Inggris, Perancis, Arab China dan lainnya, atau bahasa apapun yang digunakan oleh otoritas penerbangan di daerah tersebut. Sayangnya bahasa Indonesia bukanlah bahasa yang dikenal di ICAO dalam komunikasi penerbangan, bahkan tidak juga dipakai sebagai bahasa resmi penerbangan nasional Indonesia.

Sedangkan bahasa Inggris saat ini adalah satu-satunya bahasa yang harus digunakan dalam penerbangan internasional.

Language proficiency level ini harus diterapkan paling lambat 5 Maret 2008 dan negara-negara ICAO masih boleh menerima penerbang di wilayah udaranya biarpun penerbang tersebut belum memiliki nilai sertifikat kemahiran berbahasa ini sampai Maret 2011.
Tingkat kemahiran berbahasa ini dibagi dalam 6 level.

1.     Pre-elementary

2.     Elementary

3.     Pre-operational

4.     Operational

5.     Extended

6.     Expert

Untuk bisa beroperasi sebagai profesional penerbangan maka seseorang harus memiliki kemampuan minimal level 4 yang tertulis di lisensinya. Tautan/Link untuk kriteria setiap level kami lampirkan di bawah tulisan ini sebagai acuan. Pada dasarnya yang dinilai adalah Pronunciation, Structure, Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension, Interactions.
 

Ujian ulang

Biarpun sudah mengantongi level 4 atau 5 di lisensinya, seorang profesional penerbangan harus mengikuti ujian ulang setiap jangka waktu tertentu. Hanya level 6 yang tidak harus mengikuti ujian ulang karena sudah memiliki kefasihan yang cukup natural/alami. ICAO merekomendasikan jangka waktu 6 tahun bagi pemegang level 5 dan 3 tahun bagi pemegang level 4 untuk diuji ulang.

 

Penulisan di lisensi

Seorang yang mengantongi nilai di atas level 4 pada Language Proficiency Level ini di lisensinya akan tertulis seperti ini:

 

Meets language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 in:

·         English valid until 17-August-2016

·         French valid until 17-August-2013

Sekali lagi sayang bahwa bahasa Indonesia tidak dipakai secara resmi di negaranya sendiri. Di sini juga ada jawaban percakapan para penerbang helikopter di atas bahwa jika bahasa Indonesia dipakai dalam penerbangan di Indonesia maka tetap akan ada tes kemahiran berbahasa. Gunanya untuk menghilangkan kesalahpahaman akibat aksen yang berbeda antara pembicara bahasa selain bahasa Indonesia.

Sedangkan jika tidak lulus minimal level 4 maka di lisensinya akan tertulis:
 

Does not meet language proficiency requirement

in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 for radiotelephony communications in English

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Yang harus diuji

ATC, penerbang pesawat dan helikopter, navigator, dan operator sebuah aeronautical station wajib memiliki nilai level ini di lisensinya. Sedangkan penerbang glider (pesawat layang), penerbang balon dan teknisi pesawat udara tidak wajib memiliki nilai level bahasa ini.

Metoda ujian

ICAO sendiri tidak memberikan kriteria tes dan kompetensi baku yang digunakan. Jadi setiap organisasi bisa membuat kriteria sendiri berdasarkan panduan dari ICAO. Di Indonesia pada saat tulisan ini dibuat hanya ada dua institusi yang penulis tahu meyelenggarakan tes ini, Pusat Pelatihan Garuda Indonesia dan PUSDIKLAT Departemen Perhubungan yang ada di Curug.
Agak berbeda dengan tes RELTA buatan RMIT university di Australia yang penulis ikuti 3 tahun silam yang menggunakan komputer untuk bagian listening dan untuk merekam speaking para pesertanya, tes di Indonesia menggunakan sarana lab bahasa untuk listeningnya.

Berikut adalah sesi yang penulis jalani dalam tes english proficiency level di Indonesia.

Sesi wawancara

Sesi ini dibawakan oleh seorang penguji bahasa Inggris. Kalau tidak salah tujuannya untuk menilai kemampuan bahasa Inggris dalam percakapan secara umum. Penguji akan menilai grammar yang dipakai, kecepatan berbicara yang konstan, kosa kata, kepekaan terhadap isyarat berupa pertanyaan atau gambar.


 

Sesi Radio Telephony

Sesi ini akan menguji kemampuan peserta dalam berkomunikasi dengan unit terkait secara simultan baik dalam komunikasi rutin ataupun non-rutin.
Pada sesi ini ada dua orang penguji. Yang satu akan beraksi sebagai ATC ataupun staf di darat yang menerima pesan di radio. Sedangkan penguji yang lainnya berperan sebagai kopilot ataupun awak kabin. Mereka membuat skenario yang berbeda-beda untuk setiap peserta ujian. Salah satu peserta mendapat skenario kerusakan hidrolik. Sedangkan penulis mendapatkan skenario ada seorang penumpang yang mengalami kesulitan bernafas.


 

Sesi Reading and Listening

Sesi ini dilakukan bersama-sama dengan peserta lainnya di sebuah laboratorium bahasa. Awalnya kami dibagikan kertas isian dan materi ujian reading. Jawabannya pilihan ganda. Bagian kedua adalah listening mendengarkan percakapan lalu mengisi jawaban pilihan ganda yang paling tepat dengan percakapan tersebut. Bagian lain dari ujian ini adalah beberapa pilihan ganda dan isian untuk grammar dan vocabulary.


 

Sumber:
 

http://relta.org/reltatestformat.html

http://www.aviationmanagement.aero/Downloads/ICAOLanguageProficiencyScale.pdf

http://www.icao.int/icao/en/trivia/peltrgFAQ.htm#20

Amendment 164 to Annex 1

 

What are the applicability dates of the Standards on language proficiency?

Amendment 164 to Annex 1 on language proficiency became applicable on 27 November 2003. However, the application of Article 42 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and the fact that some elements of the amendment have a deferred applicability date is creating a progressive application of the Standards which is summarized below:

Air traffic controllers

Since 27 Nov. 2003

Applicants for, and holders of an air traffic controller licence shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications. The way in which the ability is demonstrated is determined by the Licensing Authority of each ICAO Contracting State.
 

As of 5 Mar. 2008

The demonstration of the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications shall be done in accordance with the holistic descriptor and the rating scale contained in the Appendix and the Attachment to Annex 1. Those demonstrating language proficiency below the Expert Level (Level 6) will be formally re-evaluated at intervals in accordance with their individual proficiency level. ICAO recommends that the interval be six years for those at the Extended Level (Level 5) and three years for those at the Operational Level (Level 4).
 

Aeroplane and helicopter pilots

Since 5 Mar. 2004

Applicants for an aeroplane and helicopter pilot licence shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications. The way in which the ability is demonstrated is determined by the Licensing Authority of each ICAO Contracting State.

As of 5 Mar. 2008

Holders of aeroplane and helicopter pilot licences issued before 5 March 2004 shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications.

As of 5 Mar. 2008

The demonstration of the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications shall be done in accordance with the holistic descriptor and the rating scale contained in the Appendix and the Attachment to Annex 1. Those demonstrating language proficiency below the Expert Level (Level 6) will be formally re-evaluated at intervals in accordance with their individual proficiency level. ICAO recommends that the interval be six years for those at the Extended Level (Level 5) and three years for those at the Operational Level (Level 4).

Holders of other personnel licences

Aeronautical station operators:Same as for air traffic controllers.

Flight navigators:Need to demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications if the flight navigator is required to use the radiotelephone aboard an aircraft. They will not be required to comply with the holistic descriptors and rating scale after 5 March 2008.

Glider and free balloon pilots and flight engineers:There is no language proficiency Standard applicable to these categories of personnel. However, Annex 1, Chapter 1, paragraph 1.2.9.3 contains a Recommendation that reads: "Flight engineers, glider and free balloon pilots should have the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications.".

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Has the deadline of 5 March 2008 for the implementation of the language proficiency requirements been changed?

No, the applicability date of 5 March 2008 is retained. However, the 36th Assembly of ICAO (September 2007) urged Contracting States to accept in their own airspace until 5 March 2011, pilots from other States that are not in a position to comply with the language proficiency requirements by 5 March 2008 providedthat the States that issued or rendered valid the licenses post on the ICAO Flight Safety Exchange FSIX their language proficiency implementation plans. In addition, the Assembly also urged Contracting States not to restrict their operators, conducting commercial or general aviation operations, from entering the airspace of other Contracting States where air traffic controllers or radio station operators do not yet meet the language proficiency requirements until 5 March 2011, providedthat those States post their language proficiency implementation plans. The plan shall describe:

1.     the steps that are taken to achieve compliance with the language proficiency requirement by March 2011; and
 

2.     the interim measures that are in place to mitigate risk, as required, for pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators involved in international operations.

Guidelines to States on the development of implementation plans are contained in State Letter 07/68 dated 26 October 2007 which is available in Arabic (ar), Chinese (zh), English (en), French (fr), Russian (ru) and Spanish (es) at http://www.icao.int/fsix/lp.cfm.

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Do the language provisions reduce the need to use standardized phraseology?

Absolutely not! In fact, the language provisions adopted in November 2003 reinforce the case for the use of standardized phraseology (See Annex 10, Volume II, paragraph 5.1.1.1). Pilots and controllers shall use ICAO standardized phraseology in all situations for which it has been specifiedand resort to plain language in radiotelephony communications onlywhen standardized phraseology cannot serve an intended transmission.

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In which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency?

Amendment 164 to Annex 1 has introduced strengthened language proficiency requirements for flight crew members and air traffic controllers. The language proficiency requirements apply to any language used for radiotelephony communications in international operations. Therefore, pilots on international flights shall demonstrate language proficiency in either English or the language used by the station on the ground. Controllers working on stations serving designated airports and routes used by international air services shall demonstrate language proficiency in English as well as in any other language(s) used by the station on the ground.

For more information, please refer to Annex 1, Chapter 1, paragraph 1.2.9 and Attachment to Annex 1, and also to Annex 10, Volume II, Chapter 5. Please, also refer to the FAQ "Guidance on the evaluation of language proficiency".

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Are all members of the flight crew required to meet the language proficiency requirements?

All pilots shall meet the language proficiency requirements when they fly internationally. The provisions contained in Annex 10 (Chapter 5, former paragraphs 5.2.1.2.3 and 5.2.1.2.4), which allowed the use of interpreters, have been withdrawn.

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In what intervals shall language proficiency be demonstrated?

The ICAO Standards on language proficiency require that aeroplane and helicopter pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators who demonstrate proficiency below the Expert Level (Level 6) shall be formally evaluated at intervals in accordance with an individual's demonstrated proficiency level. The interval will have to be established by each Civil Aviation Authority. ICAO is recommending an interval of six years for those at the Extended Level (Level 5) and three years for those at the Operational Level (Level 4).

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Does ICAO approve or accredit language learning or testing centres?

ICAO does not accredit, certify or endorse any language training or testing centre. The organization is developing test criteria and competency standards for personnel involved in the testing process.

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Could a language proficiency test contain radiotelephony and technical questions?

Because of the high stakes involved, pilots and air traffic controllers deserve to be tested in a context similar to that in which they work and test content should therefore be relevant to their roles in the work-place. The descriptors for Vocabulary and Comprehension for ICAO Operational Level 4 refer to "work-related topics". Tests should provide test-takers with sufficient and varied opportunities to use plain language in aviation work-related contexts in order to demonstrate their ability with respect to each descriptor in the Language Proficiency Rating Scale and the Holistic Descriptors. To achieve this, the design of tests should be undertaken by a team of linguistic and operational subject matter experts to ensure validity, reliability and operational relevance.

The Note found in the Appendix to Annex 1 indicates that the Holistic Descriptors and Rating Scale apply to the use of phraseology as well as plain language. Just as testing of ICAO phraseology cannot be used to assess plain language proficiency, neither can English language proficiency tests be used to test ICAO standardized phraseology.

It is acceptable that a test contain a scripted test task in which phraseology is included in a prompt. The test task may be used as a warm up or an ice-breaker and elicit a plain language response from the test taker. Test prompts should not be intended to evaluate specific technical knowledge concerning operations. For example, prompts such as "What is the separation minima for aircraft being vectored for an ILS approach?", or "Describe the different flight modes of the A320 flight control system" are not acceptable.

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Does ICAO have speech samples that illustrate the various proficiency levels?

ICAO has prepared a CD that contains speech samples rated at ICAO Language Proficiency Levels 3, 4 and 5. Each of the speech samples is accompanied by a detailed rating form that contains the underlying rationale for the rating. In addition, the CD contains information on the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale and on language proficiency testing.

This CD is of interest to Civil Aviation Authorities, air navigation service providers, training institutions, airlines, and institutions imparting aviation English courses and conducting language proficiency tests. The CD can be purchased directly online from ICAO (Order No. AUD001) through the Alamat email ini dilindungi dari robot spam. Anda memerlukan Javascript yang aktif untuk melihatnya..

Amendments to the Audio CD-ROM

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Guidance on the evaluation of language proficiency

The following paragraphs provide guidance on the evaluation of language proficiency. More detailed guidance can be found in the "Manual on the Implementation of the ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements– Doc 9835-AN/453" that is now available in English and that can be purchased on-line. The Arabic, Chinese, French, Spanish and Russian versions will become progressively available. This manual addresses the various training and evaluation issues related to the implementation of the ICAO language proficiency Standards. A table of contents of the manual is available here.

Why is it important to initiate evaluation of language proficiency rapidly?

While the formal evaluation of language proficiency is only required as of 5 March 2008, there are good reasons to start formal evaluation of language proficiency much earlier:

1.     for recruitment purposes: It is likely that most air traffic service providers and airlines will want their new recruit to meet the language proficiency requirements as a prerequisite for recruitment;
 

2.     for benchmarking purposes: The establishment of the training programme required to bring existing staff to the appropriate level would require an accurate assessment of the level of language proficiency of existing staff; and
 

3.     to be prepared for the 5 March 2008 deadline.

What should be the scope and depth of the evaluation?

The scope of the evaluation is the "speaking and listening ability" which is specified in Annex 1 for pilots and air traffic controllers. The depth of the evaluation is defined by the Holistic Descriptors and the Standards for Operational Level 4.

Holistic Descriptors

Proficient speakers shall:

1.     communicate effectively in voice-only (telephone/radiotelephone) and in face-to-face situations;
 

2.     communicate on common, concrete and work-related topics with accuracy and clarity;
 

3.     use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange messages and to recognize and resolve misunderstandings (e.g. to check, confirm, or clarify information) in a general or work-related context;
 

4.     handle successfully and with relative ease the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events that occurs within the context of a routine work situation or communicative task with which they are otherwise familiar; and
 

5.     use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the aeronautical community.

For more information, please refer to the Appendix of Annex 1.

ICAO Rating Scale for Operational Level 4

A speaker will be rated at Operational Level 4 if the following criteria are met:

Pronunciation:
(Assumes a dialect and/or accent intelligible to the aeronautical community.)

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

Structure:
(Relevant grammatical structures and sentence patterns are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.)

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary:

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

Fluency:

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Comprehension:

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work-related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies.

Interactions:

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

For information on the complete ICAO language proficiency rating scale, please refer to the Attachment to Annex 1.

Do native speakers need to be evaluated and how?

Native speakers need to be evaluated. However, in this case, it is possible to use a process similar to that which is routinely used today to ensure that applicants do not have a speech impediment that would affect their capacity to operate safely. This assessment can also be extended to non-native language assessment at the highest or Expert level. This is because native speakers can easily identify other speakers with native and/or Expert language proficiency through fluent and natural use of the language. Similarly, completely inadequate proficiency is also relatively easy to identify.

In practice, language proficiency assessment for native and/or Expert speakers can consist of an interview with a representative from the Licensing Authority such as a flight examiner. If a problem is noticed (speech impediment or inappropriately strong regional accent) during such an interview, the applicant should be referred to a specialist for follow-through.

What is the best evaluation method?

In any large scale-testing situation, it is accepted that the best practice is to permit a number of test/assessment options. For non-native language assessment, formal evaluation can currently include any of the following:

1.     an official test score on commercially available language tests (or other language tests available);
 

2.     a test score on an internally developed language test;
 

3.     an assessment provided by an outside language testing expert (available through many universities or commercial testing agencies); or
 

4.     an assessment provided by an in-house language-testing expert.

The format of the formal assessment will be determined by the State, but the "Manual on the Implementation of the ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements– Doc 9835-AN/453" provides specific suggestions on how States can assess the suitability and reliability of testing solutions that would be proposed by the industry.

Are there any tests already available?

Efforts to develop appropriate and commercially available aviation-specific testing instruments are underway and aviation-specific test options are already available and more will become available in the near future.

Most of the commercially available English knowledge tests such as TOEFL are not appropriate for the purpose of testing English competency for pilots and air traffic controllers. The main reason is that those tests have not been designed for testing the "speaking and listening ability" required by Annex 1. Some oral proficiency tests are available but they are generally designed for a context (e.g. business) that is not that of civil aviation and are therefore not fully satisfactory.

Generally speaking, the evaluation of the speaking and/or listening skills requires face-to-face contact between tester and test-taker, or semi-direct contact, through recorded speaking prompts and recorded responses that are analyzed later by the tester. Other testing methods and in particular those using only "pen and paper" tests or their computerized versions are not appropriate.

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What are the ICAO provisions governing the endorsement of licences for language proficiency?

There are two: ICAO Annex 1 paragraph 5.1.1.2, XIII and Article 39 b) of the Chicago Convention.

Annex 1 paragraph 5.1.1.2, XIII states that, under Remarks, the following shall appear on the licence: “special endorsements relating to limitations and endorsement for privileges, including from 5 March 2008 an endorsement on language proficiency, and other information required in pursuance to Article 39 of the Chicago Convention”. Annex 1 paragraph 5.1.1.2, XIII applies if a State has established a regulatory framework for language proficiency and conducted language assessments. Paragraph 5.1.1.2, XIII does not specify the wording to be used for endorsement of licences related to language proficiency.

Article 39 b) states that “any person holding a licence who does not satisfy in full the conditions laid down in the international standard relating to the class of licence or certificate which he holds shall have endorsed on or attached to his licence a complete enumeration of the particulars in which he does not satisfy such conditions.” Article 39 b) applies if a State has not yet established a regulatory framework for language proficiency, if language assessments have not yet been conducted, or if a licence holder has failed to demonstrate a language proficiency of at least ICAO Operational Level 4.

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How should the endorsement for language proficiency be worded on the licences?

As indicated above, the provisions governing the endorsement of licences for language proficiency do not specify the wording to be used. The wording below should be considered as a guideline for licensing authorities. In the endorsement, a validity period should be indicated only for proficiency levels 4 and 5 in accordance with Annex 1 paragraph 1.2.9.7.

FOR PILOTS

Endorsements under Annex 1 paragraph 5.1.1.2, XIII

If a pilot has been assessed to level 4 or higher in English, the licence should indicate the following:

Meets language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 for English valid until [DATE]

If other languages are used in radiotelephony communications and a pilots has been assessed to level 4 or higher in those languages, the licence should indicate:

Meets language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 in:

·         language 1 valid until [DATE]

·         language 2 valid until [DATE]

Endorsement under Article 39 b) of the Chicago Convention

If a pilot fails to meet level 4 or higher in English, the licence should indicate the following:

Does not meet language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 for radiotelephony communications in English

If the pilot has not been assessed as meeting the language proficiency requirement to at least ICAO Operational Level 4 in a language used for radiotelephony communications, the licence should indicate the following text:

Does not meet language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1

If the pilot has not been assessed because the Licensing authority has not yet conducted an assessment or assessments for the relevant language or languages used in radiotelephony communications, the above endorsement should appear on the licence and the Civil Aviation Authority should provide a reference to its implementation plan, as described in Assembly Resolution A36-11, in an attachment or a letter.

 

FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS/AERONAUTICAL STATION OPERATORS

Air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators may or may not be licensed. Unlicensed State employees may operate as air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators on condition that they meet the same requirements as licensed personnel. Therefore unlicensed State employees should have a similar endorsement as licensed personnel in their records. 

For air traffic controllers/aeronautical station operators, an endorsement for proficiency in all languages used for radiotelephony communications including English should appear on their licence or record.

Endorsements under Annex 1 paragraph 5.1.1.2, XIII

If an air traffic controller/aeronautical station operator has been assessed to level 4 or higher for English and/or other languages, the licence or record should indicate:

Meets language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 in:

·         English valid until [DATE]

·         [other language] valid until [DATE]

Endorsement under Article 39 b) of the Chicago Convention

If an air traffic controller/aeronautical station operator has failed to meet Level 4 in English, the licence or record should indicate:

Does not meet language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1 for English

If no assessment has been carried out successfully for proficiency in any language, the licence or record should state:

Does not meet language proficiency requirement
in accordance with para 1.2.9.4 of ICAO Annex 1

 

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